These results offer a new perspective for understanding seemingly paradoxical
traits in human populations. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is Selleckchem PD-L1 inhibitor a calcium-binding, scaffold-signalling protein expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to injury. The effects of AIF-1 attenuation on development of intimal hyperplasia are unknown, and the molecular mechanisms of these effects remain uncharacterized. The goals of the present study were to determine whether AIF-1 knockdown reduced VSMC proliferation, migration, and intimal hyperplasia, and determine AIF-1 effects on signal transduction in VSMCs.\n\nBalloon angioplasty-injured rat carotid arteries transduced with adenovirus to overexpress AIF-1 (AdAIF-1) significantly increased, and adenovirus to knock down AIF-1 (AdsiRNA) expression significantly decreased neointimal formation compared with green fluorescent protein (AdGFP) and Adscrambled controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, n = 6). Primary
rat VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 displayed a significant increase in proliferation, and AdsiRNA-transduced VSMCs proliferated significantly more Selleckchem AZD8055 slowly than controls (P < 0.05). VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 show increased migration when compared with control VSMCs (P < 0.01). Rat VSMCs transduced with AdAIF-1 showed constitutive and prolonged activation
of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, whereas AdsiRNA-treated VSMCs showed decreased p38 activation compared with AdGFP (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of AdAIF-1-transduced carotid arteries showed increased staining with a phospho-specific p38 antibody compared with AdGFP-transduced arteries. A specific p38 inhibitor abrogated buy STA-9090 AIF-1-induced VSMC proliferation, but not AIF-1-induced migration.\n\nTaken together, AIF-1 expression plays a key role in the development of neointimal hyperplasia. AIF-1 expression enhances the activation of p38 MAP kinase. AIF-1-enhanced proliferation is p38 kinase dependent, but AIF-1-enhanced VSMC migration is p38 independent.”
“The overexpression of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) and its translational product p-glycoprotein (P-gp) may play an important role in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We established the rat astrocyte model overexpressing P-gp induced by coriaria lactone and successfully nucleofected it with the siRNA-hairpin expression vector pSIREN-shuttle designed to target MDR-1B mRNA. The mRNA expression of MDR-1B gene was mostly knock down by 67.70% (p<0.01). The expression of P-gp in experimental group was significantly lower than that in negative control (p<0.05), and the rhodamine efflux ratio of experimental group (23.08%) was remarkably lower than that of negative control (78.35%, p<0.01).