This could be observed at the level of growth rate, where the dif

This could be observed at the level of growth rate, where the difference in growth rate of iron-replete versus iron-limited cells was

much more drastic in photoheterotrophic (57%) than in phototrophic (75%) conditions (Table 1; Fig. 1). SIS3 purchase Iron-limited phototrophic cells were also visually less impacted with respect to chlorosis than photoheterotrophic cells (data not shown), and this was confirmed by HPLC analysis of chlorophyll a levels (Fig. 3). A similar trend was observed for oxygen evolution rates. While oxygen evolution rates were decreased at least 50% in response to iron limitation in acetate-grown cells, they were only decreased 10% in phototrophic iron-limited cells relative to iron-replete conditions (Table 2). The Bortezomib in vitro lack of sensitivity is also noted with respect to respiration and the maintenance of respiratory and photosynthetic complexes (Fig. 7). We attribute this to the higher iron content (and hence reservoir) in phototrophic versus photoheterotrophic cells (Fig. 2). It is possible that the excess iron is stored in ferritin or the vacuole of phototrophic cells and provided as needed as cells divide and deplete iron from the medium (Long et al. 2008; Roschzttardtz et al. 2009). Although the lower abundance of ferritin as measured by immunoblot

analysis in phototrophic cells (Supplemental Fig. 1; Busch et al. 2008) might argue against this possibility, we note that in neither study was the iron content of ferritin assessed. Since the mechanisms for regulating iron loading and unloading of ferritin are not known, storage in ferritin remains a formal possibility. Another possibility is that more iron may be stored in the vacuole of phototrophic cells relative to photoheterotrophic cells and mobilized in a situation of iron-deficiency by up-regulation of vacuolar efflux transporters. Both

the vacuole and the ferritin have been implicated as possible sites of iron storage in Chlamydomonas as well as in other plants (Semin et al. 2003; Lanquar et al. 2005; Kim et al. 2006; Long et al. 2008; Briat et al. 2009). According to ferroxidase expression, which we use as a sentinel of iron nutritional status, phototrophic cells are not iron-deficient until the iron in the medium is lowered to 0.1 μM (Fig. 7), which supports the model of iron storage in phototrophic Chlormezanone cells. The delayed degradation of PSI and expression of ferroxidase in phototrophic cells was also observed in an iron starvation time course experiment of cells grown in TAP versus HSM medium (Busch et al. 2008). It is interesting to note that the abundance of de-epoxidized xanthophyll cycle pigments was Sotrastaurin supplier increased in photoheterotrophic iron-limited cells when compared to phototrophic iron-limited cells (Fig. 5), and LhcSR proteins were expressed at similar levels (Fig. 7), yet iron-limited photoheterotrophic cells were clearly impaired in NPQ (Fig. 4).

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