This is the first molecular detection and characterization of B. gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All
“We have shown in several papers the importance of using topology, particularly set-point topology, to deal with chemical questions related to the concept of similarity. The procedure developed has been called “chemotopology” and it has been applied to different chemical sets e. g. chemical elements, benzimidazoles, AZD8055 molecular weight sterorids, amino acids and hydrides. The idea behind chemotopology is to run a hierarchical cluster analysis study on a set of objects characterised by different attributes. From this study a dendrogram is obtained, which gathers similarity neighbourhoods for the set of objects. Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor By using a mathematical characterisation of a dendrogram it is possible to select a collection of objects’ neighbourhoods which in turn become a basis for a topology. With this basis at hand different properties of subsets of objects can be calculated, all of them related to the concept of similarity e. g. closures, derived sets, boundaries, interiors and exteriors. We have also shown the chemical meaning of each one of these properties. In this manuscript, we review
the foundations of the chemotopological method as well as its different applications to chemical sets. By means of examples we illustrate how the method can be used as a versatile tool for drug discovery. We also study the relationship between the topologies generated from dendrograms of a given set of objects and the dendrograms that can be obtained for selleck chemicals particular topologies on the set of objects.”
“Integrating the ecosystem service concept into land use planning requires tools that allow rapid and transparent assessment of ecosystem services. The demand for simple indicators has stimulated the emergence of land use based proxy methods. Although these have been very powerful to create policy awareness on different levels, they
are insufficient when it comes to land use and policy planning for ecosystem service delivery. Discarding the complex ecological reality or scientific uncertainty poses serious risks for adverse effects of policies. This explorative study constitutes the basis for the further development of a tool to link land use planning for ecosystem service bundle optimization, capturing inherent ecological complexity and uncertainty. Particular emphasis was placed on the biophysical potential of an ecosystem to deliver services and the link with the actual land use. The EBI – Ecosystem Service Bundle Index – builds on a Bayesian network model that allows integration of biophysical and socio-economic processes as well as land use planning policies driving the delivery of bundles of ecosystem services. The EBI prototype was tested in a pilot study area using three interacting ecosystem services.