Understandably, this strategy will be modified as upcoming eviden

Understandably, this strategy will be modified as upcoming evidence may make some requirements unnecessary, while other new data

may recommend different preclinical approaches prior to clinical trials. In this context, the REBORNE European Union FP7th large integrating project (www.reborne.org) has fostered our consortium to organize the current preclinical requirements to request approval from multinational European competent authorities. Both in vitro and animal studies have been launched to preclinically support the derived clinical trials. Particularly, a clinical multicentric phase I/IIa trial (EudraCT 2011-005441-13, NCT01842477) aiming at safety and efficacy of cellular therapy was started in May 2013 to assess the use of cultured, expanded autologous BM cells intra-operatively loaded onto biphasic calcium-phosphate granules as an alternative to autologous cancellous bone grafting in patients with long bone nonunion buy Dabrafenib or delayed union. The review of international

clinical trial databases is the only updated source of on-going clinical trials. Search can be performed initially through the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform — ICTRP [80]. This platform incorporates weekly updates of the European Clinical Trials Database — EudraCT [81], the ClinicalTrials.gov database [82], the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register — ISRCTN, and the Australian New Zealand Liothyronine Sodium Clinical Trials Registry,

as well as monthly updates of national clinical trial registries. A particular check details distinction of European clinical trials on advanced therapies is the large proportion of sponsors from academic and charitable organizations, as seen in a recent review of 318 trials from 2004 to 2010 on 250 therapies [83]. This aspect is reinforced by the fostering of investigator-driven clinical trials from institutions and organizations across Europe [84], spreading the opportunities for more available clinical information about the myriad possibilities that can be considered in the cell therapy field. Yet, many declared clinical trials in any of the available international and national trial registries, both from academic and industrial sponsors, do not offer results or just provide initial information about the research effort, and then the development of the trial and the final outcomes are difficult to trace. This is equally confirmed in the long bone nonunion cell therapy trials. To further illustrate the current situation, the available on-going trials on the topic of this review are summarized in Table 1. Excluding trials with unknown status or not yet recruiting, 13 trials related with long bone fracture or nonunion and mesenchymal cell therapy were identified as they have been cited in clinical trial registries as completed (6 of them) or recruiting patients. They may be classified into four groups to allow for comparative analysis.

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