We then

discuss two main approaches to measure diffusion

We then

discuss two main approaches to measure diffusion flux – two-point (i.e. chemical concentrations in sediment porewater and overlying water), and the traditional benthic chamber that can directly measure chemical-diffusion flux from sediment, but the measurement selleck is done at the sorbent-water interface rather than the sediment-water interface. Finally, we present a recently-designed passive sampling device, which derives chemical-diffusion flux at the sediment-water interface from measured concentration profiles in overlying water and sediment porewater. Future work should be directed toward accurate determination of the chemical-diffusion coefficient in overlying water, which is still required for the new sampling device. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Laryngotracheal stenosis is difficult to treat and its etiologies are multiple; nowadays, the most common ones are postintubation or posttracheostomy stenoses. Objective: To provide an algorithm for the management of postintubation laryngotracheal stenoses (PILTS) based on the experience of a tertiary care referral center. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on all patients treated for PILTS over a 10-year period. Patients were divided into a surgically and an endoscopically treated group according

to predefined criteria. The characteristics of the two groups were analyzed and the outcomes compared. Results: Thirty-three consecutive patients were included in the study: 14 in the surgically treated group and 19 in the endoscopically treated group. Our candidates for airway surgery selleck compound were healthy patients presenting with complex tracheal stenoses, subglottic involvement Wnt inhibitor or associated tracheomalacia. The endoscopic candidates were chronically ill patients presenting with simple, strictly tracheal stenoses not exceeding 4 cm in length. Stents were placed if the stenosis was associated with tracheomalacia or exceeded 2 cm in total length. In the surgically treated group, 2/14 patients needed more than one procedure versus

8/19 patients in the endoscopically treated group. At the end of the intervention, 50% of the patients were decannulated in the surgically treated group versus 84.2% in the endoscopically treated group (p = 0.03). However, the decannulation rates at 6 months and the symptomatology at rest and on exertion on the last follow-up visit were comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: Our experience in the management of PILTS demonstrates that both surgery and endoscopy yield excellent functional outcomes if the treatment strategy is based on clear, predefined objective criteria. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Objective: To determine if subjects experiencing acute vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy have increased plasma markers of thrombin generation compared to nonbleeding controls.

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