WIREs Syst Biol Med 2013, 5:307342. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1212
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“A five and a half year-old girl presented with a reddish-brown plaque on her right anterior tibia, first observed 1 year previously and without any history of injury or insect bite. Histological examination showed a dense dermal infiltrate composed of plasma cells and small lymphocytes, combined with lymphocytic exocytosis in the epidermis and interface dermatitis. In addition, a second biopsy found small epithelioid granulomas within the lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate. Infection was ruled out. No clonality was found. None of the treatments attempted PD0325901 ic50 was successful (antibiotics and steroids), and the lesion was stable but did not improve for 4 years. The
same features typical of lymphoplasmocytic pseudolymphoma were observed on a third biopsy. Cyclosporin A A diagnosis of “”pretibial lymphoplasmocytic plaque”" was made on the basis of clinical and histological findings. Recently, 3 other cases of this type of lymphocytic and plasma cell cutaneous infiltrate with very distinctive clinical and histopathological features have been reported in children. Our case is instructive because it presents new and as yet undocumented histopathologic features including a lichenoid reaction with vacuolization of the basal cell layer and numerous apoptotic bodies, apparent in 2 of the 3 biopsies, and hypervascularity with thick-walled blood vessels lined check details with plump endothelial cells in the upper dermis. The clinicopathological presentation of these cases, including ours, is homogenous suggesting a specific entity
described as “”pretibial lymphoplasmocytic plaque in children”". This seems to be a benign, chronic, reactive process, probably arising secondary to a local response to an unknown antigen.”
“We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro/bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1-10 cm/s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel.