, 2003; Rawlings & Johnson, 2007; Rohwerder & Sand, 2007) Biolog

, 2003; Rawlings & Johnson, 2007; Rohwerder & Sand, 2007). Biological iron oxidation by this bacterium and other microorganisms, such as members of the genus

Leptospirillum, is the key reaction to regenerate ferric iron, which catalyzes the solubilization of metal ions from sulfide ores. However, the formation of a sulfur layer on the surface of sulfide ores prevents ferric iron from attacking the sulfide–metal bond, resulting in a decrease in bioleaching efficiency (Edwards et al., 2000). Therefore, in addition to iron oxidation, one of the most important processes in bioleaching is microbial sulfur oxidation to prevent the formation of an elemental sulfur layer. Tetrathionate hydrolase (4THase) is one of the key enzymes PI3K Inhibitor Library in the dissimilatory sulfur metabolism of A. ferrooxidans. The 4THase of this bacterium has a maximum activity at pH 3.0–4.0 and is highly stable under acidic conditions (de Jong et al., 1997; Kanao et al., 2007). The catalytic reaction of the enzyme is tetrathionate

hydrolysis, to generate elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfate. The A. ferrooxidans ATCC23270 4THase gene (Af-tth) was identified by determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein and searching the whole genome database of the bacterium (Kanao et al., 2007). The gene SRT1720 research buy was composed of 1500 bp nucleotides encoding a 499 amino acid polypeptide. A putative Sec-type signal peptide composed of 32 amino acid residues was observed in the N-terminal of the deduced amino acid sequence of the

ORF. This gene is the same as the previously reported unknown gene encoding for a sulfur-regulated protein associated with the outer membrane fraction from A. ferrooxidans (Buonfiglio et al., 1999). In our hands, the recombinant protein of the 4THase of A. ferrooxidans was synthesized in inclusion bodies and in an inactive form in Escherichia coli harboring a plasmid with Af-tth (Kanao et al., 2007). Development of a method to obtain the active form of the recombinant 4THase will enable us to investigate the following: (1) details of the kinetic and biochemical from properties, (2) crystallization of this unique enzyme, and (3) the amino acid residues essential for the activity. In order to advance characterization of the enzymatic and biological properties of the 4THase, here, we report the expression of the protein in the form of inclusion bodies in E. coli, and the development of a refolding protocol that involves solubilization of the inclusion bodies in concentrated denaturant solutions and subsequent dilution and dialysis to obtain a catalytically active enzyme. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC23270 was grown aerobically on 9K medium (pH 2.5) supplemented with 3% w/v FeSO4·7H2O for genomic DNA preparation. Escherichia coli DH5α (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) was used for DNA manipulation. The cells were grown in a Luria–Bertani medium supplemented with ampicillin (50 μg mL−1).

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