, 2013) Typical examples of MP material encountered in this stud

, 2013). Typical examples of MP material encountered in this study are given in Fig. 4. China has been considered as one of the three biggest producers of plastic waste (Rochman et al., 2013). Understanding

http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Dasatinib.html the properties and distribution of plastics is useful in considering how MP impacts the social economy, what influence the items have on the marine ecosystem and how to target management. Our study provides a baseline of MP contamination in the Yangtze Estuarine system, as well as the first quantitative description of MP debris in China. The size, abundance and characters of floating MPs (0.5–5 mm) were established in the Yangtze Estuarine System. The unique design of spatial scales provides good insights into MP source and fate. Further research is planned to assess distribution of MP transported via estuaries in differing marine environments and the probable transfer Forskolin purchase of MP in the food chain. We thank the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments on the manuscript. This paper was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2010CB951203), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai

Municipality (11ZR1438800) and the State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research of China (200KYYW03). “
“What follows is a personal viewpoint regarding the state of coral reefs in the Florida Keys. My view is based on personal observations and geologic knowledge gained in recent years Methane monooxygenase from high-resolution seismic profiles and many coral reef cores. Seismic profiles show that the majority of the outer-reef belt is <2 m, not as thick as would be expected and coring of the thicker backreef accumulations combined with C-14 dating indicate periods during the past 6000 years when coral reefs did not accrete. Such arrested growth, whether due

to storms, freezes, or warming events, clearly occurred before there were significant numbers of humans in the Florida Keys. With this geologic background as a guide, I present a somewhat offbeat history of the Florida Keys. The story starts in 1950 when I first began diving there, and is based almost entirely on recollections. Much has been left out, and certainly many significant events have been missed. I was born in Key West 2 years before the infamous Labor Day Storm of 1935 and began serious diving in the Keys in 1950. I had been fishing there with my father many years before learning to dive. In the early days, diving meant spear fishing. Early on, we made spears from Model A Ford brake rods that could be scrounged in junkyards. Because of age and location, I observed many historical and sociological changes leading up to the present. My history may seem cynical in part but nevertheless illuminates many ways that social history in the Keys affected coral reefs. One must first realize that the Florida Keys have long been a magnet for people running away from something, starting with the first pirates and later British loyalists immigrating from the Bahamas.

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