Pyocyanin exerts multiple detrimental

Pyocyanin exerts multiple detrimental effects on the host, primarily through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species, and is capable of repressing transcription of host oxidative stress defense proteins [45], interfering with metabolism [46], inhibiting beating of cilia [47], proinflammatory action [48], neutrophil apoptosis [49] and increased levels correlate with CF pulmonary exacerbations [50]. P. aeruginosa possesses two operons (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2) for the synthesis of phenazine-carboxylic acid (PCA), which

is then further processed by PhzM to 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP) and finally, PhzS to pyocyanin. These intermediates also exhibit cytotoxic effects on the host [47, 51, 52]. We observed elevated levels of PhzS in AES-1R compared to PAO1 (gel-free approach) and PA14 (2-DE gel-based analysis), yet a decrease in comparative PhzB2 selleck inhibitor levels. Increased PhzS may reflect elevated 1-HP to pyocyanin, which is supported by several studies

showing pyocyanin production is enhanced in CF strains [53, 54] and reflected in AES-1R phenotypic data compared to PAO1 (Table 1). Decreased PhzB2 abundance may reflect differential induction of the 2 Phz operons across strains [47, 51, Selumetinib datasheet 52, 55]. Iron acquisition via siderophore production is critical for successful colonization of the CF lung and for providing P. aeruginosa with a distinct competitive advantage over other pathogens. The host generally limits free iron by sequestration via transferrin, ferritin and lactoferrin. The CF lung may contain higher iron availability (CF, 13-32 μmol.L-1 c.f. normal 0-13.2 μmol.L-1 [56]), most likely due to tissue damage learn more resulting from an exaggerated inflammatory response. P. aeruginosa produces the pyochelin and pyoverdine siderophores to acquire iron from the Aprepitant environment and the later is thought to be a major contributor in the CF lung [57]. We observed increases in abundance of pyochelin synthetases (PchEF) in AES-1R compared to PAO1. Transcriptomic studies

have also shown increased expression of pchEF in a chronic CF isolate [25]. In contrast, PA14 produced even greater levels of PchEF, as well as pyochelin synthetase PchG and the Fe(III)-pyochelin outer membrane receptor FptA. This confirms that iron acquisition is important in general virulence as well as in the specific CF lung micro-environment. Other proteins involved in iron uptake and storage were differentially abundant between the strains studied. The iron storage bacterioferritins BfrA and BfrB were decreased in abundance in AES-1R, however a putative bacterioferritin PA4880 was markedly increased in abundance suggesting it may be the preferred storage protein in this isolate.

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