Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development

Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether small RNAs are involved in regulation of fiber cell development is unknown.\n\nResults: We adopted a deep sequencing approach developed by Solexa (Illumina AZD1152 concentration Inc.) to investigate global expression and complexity of small RNAs during cotton fiber initiation and development. We constructed two small RNA libraries prepared from wild type (WT) and

fuzz/lintless (fl Mutant in the WT background) cotton ovules, respectively. Each library was sequenced individually and generated more than 6-7 million short sequences, resulting in a total of over 13 million sequence reads. At least 22 conserved candidate miRNA families including 111 members were identified. Seven families make up the vast majority of expressed miRNAs in developing cotton ovules. In total 120 unique target genes were predicted for most of conserved miRNAs. In addition, we identified 2 cell-type-specific

novel miRNA candidates in cotton ovules. Our study has demonstrated significant differences in expression abundance of miRNAs between the wild-type and mutant, and suggests that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially regulate transcripts distinctly involved in cotton fiber development.\n\nConclusion: The present study is the first to deep sequence the small RNA population of G. hirsutum ovules where cotton fibers initiate and develop. Millions of unique miRNA sequences ranging from 18 similar to 28 nt in length were detected. Our results support Selleckchem AP24534 the importance of miRNAs in regulating the development of different cell types and indicate that identification of a comprehensive set of miRNAs in cotton fiber cells would facilitate our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for fiber cell initiation and elongation.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant cetuximab, capecitabine, and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced RG 7112 rectal cancer.\n\nSixty-three eligible patients were selectively enrolled in this study. Neoadjuvant treatment consisted of cetuximab and capecitabine

for 6 weeks and radiotherapy for 5 weeks. Surgical resection was performed 6-8 weeks after the completion of neoadjuvant treatment. KRAS mutation statuses were analyzed retrospectively after the cetuximab treatment. All the patients underwent a standardized postoperative follow-up for at least 3 years.\n\nA pathological complete response (pCR) was achieved in eight patients (12.7 %). Overall down-staging was found in 49 patients (77.8 %). The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate was 76.2 % and 81.0 %, respectively. The most common adverse events during neoadjuvant treatment were acneiform skin rash (82.5 %), radiodermatitis (46.0 %), and diarrhea (36.5 %). KRAS mutations were detected in 19 of 63 (31.2 %) tumors.

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