To investigate and localize abnormalities in the brains of two Chinese patients with HSP-TCC, with mutations in the spatacsin gene. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to determine the mean diffusion (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the brains of the patients in comparison to 20 healthy subjects. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of both the diffusion Saracatinib and anisotropy values were performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Significant changes with MD increase and FA reduction were found in the already known lesions including the corpus callosum, cerebellum and thalamus. In addition, changes were also found in
regions that appear to be normal in conventional MRI, such as the brain stem, internal capsule, cingulum and subcortical white matter including superior longitudinal fascicle and inferior longitudinal
fascicle. Neither increase in FA nor reduction in MD was detected in the brain. Our study provides clear in vivo MR imaging evidence of a more widespread brain involvement of HSP-TCC. MD is more sensitive than FA in detecting lesions in thalamus and subcortical white matter, suggesting that MD may be a better marker of the disease progression. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In studies of whole body protein turnover, recycling of tracer from the breakdown of labelled protein is usually VEGFR inhibitor neglected; this neglect may introduce a significant error. A three-pool model with fast and slowly turning over protein pools has been used to calculate recycling rates over a range of sizes and turnover rates of the protein pools. Complete and approximate solutions of the equations are given. The recycling rate of 1% per hour would fit the available data on the turnover rates of human tissue proteins. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The study investigated the effects of metabolic syndrome on urinary bladder nerve-growth factor (NGF) and p75(NTR) expression below in fructose-fed obese rats. Age-matched male Wistar
rats were divided into four groups; group I: normal control rats; group II: 6-week fructose-fed rats (FR); group III: 9-week FR; and group IV: 12-week FR. In vivo cystometry under anesthesia was performed. In vitro bladder NGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of the mRNAs that encoded NGF and NGF receptor p75(NTR) in control and 9-week FR bladder were studied using the method of reverse transcription combined with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The three groups of FR showed significant increases in body weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels when compared to control rats. The bladder NGF levels in the 9-week and 12-week FR were significantly lower than the control (66.8 +/- 5.4, 49.4 +/- 7.1 and 95.2 +/- 6.5 pg/mu g protein; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively, for n = 8 in each group).