2E). These changes were frequent at 50 weeks but were Pirfenidone chemical structure rare in younger mice. To determine whether altered expression of mitochondria-shaping proteins could account for the morphological changes, the expressions of optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), mitofusins (Mfn1 and 2), and the cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and its receptor on the outer mitochondrial membrane, Fis1, were compared. The expression of fusion protein Opa1 was 1.5-fold higher in Hint2−/− mice than in Hint2+/+ mice, whereas Mfn1 and Mfn2 were not different. Fis1 and Drp1 were slightly lower in Hint2−/− mice
(Supporting Fig. 2A,B). To determine whether the accumulation of lipids was related to defective mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids, the activities of CPT1 and CPT2 and of medium- or short-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Hadhsc), which catalyzes the NAD+-dependent dehydrogenation of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the mitochondrial matrix, were measured. The activity of Hadhsc was decreased by 68% in Hint2−/− mice compared with Hint2+/+ mice (Fig. 3A) without a change in expression of the enzyme (Fig. 3B). The activity of CPT did not change (Supporting Fig. 7A). In plasma, free fatty acid concentrations were not different, triglyceride concentrations were
lower in Hint2−/− mice only at 30 weeks, and total cholesterol was slightly higher in Hint2−/− mice (Table 1). Because the Hadhsc enzyme can bind to glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the mitochondrial matrix, which is a potential point of regulation for both enzymes, Palbociclib supplier the activity of Cediranib (AZD2171) GDH was also measured. GDH activity was decreased by 60% in Hint2−/− livers, with no change in GDH expression (Fig. 3C,D). To determine whether the protein-protein interaction of Hadhsc and GDH was disturbed by the absence of Hint2, the co-immunoprecipitation of GDH and Hadhsc was tested. Co-immunoprecipitation
was successful in Hint2+/+ and Hint2−/− mitochondria (Fig. 3E,F). Because the nonfasting interprandial insulin concentrations were two-fold higher in Hint2−/− than in Hint2+/+ mice (Table 1), a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed and insulin signaling was examined. The GTT yielded higher glucose values in Hint2−/− than in Hint2+/+ mice (area under the curve, 1,378 ± 312 versus 1,021 ± 281 mmol/L × 120 minutes, respectively; P = 0.09) (Fig. 4A). However, random interprandial blood glucose (Table 1) and fasting blood glucose were not different in Hint2−/− versus Hint2+/+ mice (Fig. 4A,C). The phosphorylation of the threonine-serine kinase, Akt, and the expression of downstream targets were measured in liver homogenates, muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT) of fasted mice after insulin stimulation (Fig. 4B). Insulin induced phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308 in all tissues (Fig. 4B, Supporting Fig. 3A).