These results emphasize the impact of Ab–FcR interactions on the development of beneficial and detrimental
T-cell responses. Protection against fungal disease has classically been attributed to cell-mediated immune responses and the fact that most invasive fungal infections occur in individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as AIDS patients, further reinforced this conception 51; however, a large body of evidence, mainly derived from Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans infections, clearly demonstrates that Abs are able to confer protection against these pathogens. The initially conflicting data on click here the protective capacity of Abs in C. neoformans and C. albicans infection led to the belief that Abs were ineffective or even detrimental against these pathogens; however, this view was changed when monoclonal Abs (mAbs) became available and detailed analysis revealed a strong dependence between their protective/permissive
effects and their specificity as well as isotype. An extensive list of protective Ags has been accumulated for C. albicans52; however, Abs directed against certain other check details C. albicans Ags are able to mask or even block this protective effect 53, 54. In addition, certain evidence for the relevance of Ab subclasses with regard to protection against C.albicans exists 55; however, this is not as clear as for cryptococcal infection, where the crucial importance
of the Ab subclass was demonstrated by the fact that a nonprotective Ab to C. neoformans could be converted into a protective Ab by switching from IgG3 to IgG1 56, 57. Opsonization with IgG1 results in augmented phagocytosis of the fungi and is able to arrest fungal growth in macrophages 58, 59. Furthermore, passive transfer of an IgG1mAb protects mice from C. neoformans. This process is strictly dependent on FcR as passive immunization fails to protect FcRγ−/− mice 59. The dependence of this protective effect on activating FcR, together with the fact that Abs are able to arrest fungal growth, Oxalosuccinic acid raises the question whether Ab-FcR-mediated lysosomal targeting, which is described in detail in the next section, might contribute to Ab-mediated protection against fungal pathogens. Intracellular pathogens have developed a wide panel of effector mechanisms to evade phagolysosomal fusion and degradation within the host cell. Despite the variety of these different pathways, the pathogen’s actions generally result in either escape from the endosome into the cytoplasm (e.g. L. monocytogenes), adaptation to the acidic, bactericidal lysosomal environment (e.g. Coxiella burnetii), or interference with the phagosome maturation pathway (e.g. Brucella) 60.